From World Health Organization (WHO)
Maternal health: Refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period.
Each stage should be a positive experience, ensuring women and their babies reach their full potential for health and well-being.
Although important progress has been made in the last two decades, about 295,000 women died during and following pregnancy and childbirth in 2017. This number is unacceptably high.
The most common direct causes of maternal injury and death are excessive blood loss, infection, high blood pressure, unsafe abortion, and obstructed labor, as well as indirect causes such as anemia, malaria, and heart disease.
Most maternal deaths are preventable with timely management by a skilled health professional working in a supportive environment.
Ending preventable maternal death must remain at the top of the global agenda. At the same time, simply surviving pregnancy and childbirth can never be the marker of successful maternal health care. It is critical to expand efforts reducing maternal injury and disability to promote health and well-being.
Every pregnancy and birth is unique. Addressing inequalities that affect health outcomes, especially sexual and reproductive health and rights and gender, is fundamental to ensuring all women have access to respectful and high-quality maternity care.
Maternal mortality rate: 37 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Definition: The maternal mortality ratio (MMRatio) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMRatio includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. Source: CIA World Factbook
Child Health: Protecting and improving the health of children is of fundamental importance. Over the past several decades, we have seen dramatic progress in improving the health and reducing the mortality rate of young children. Among other encouraging statistics, the number of children dying before the age of five was halved from 2000 to 2017, and more mothers and children are surviving today than ever before.
However, a great deal of work remains to further improve the health outcomes for children. The world is facing a double mandate. More than half of child deaths are due to conditions that could be easily prevented or treated given access to health care and improvements to their quality of life.
At the same time, children must also be given a stable environment in which to thrive, including good health and nutrition, protection from threats and access to opportunities to learn and grow. Investing in children is one of the most important things a society can do to build a better future.
Over 50% of child deaths are preventable with simple, affordable interventions.
Infant mortality rates: Male: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births. Female: 5.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.) Source: CIA World Factbook
Globally: An average of 29 deaths per 1000 live births in 2018